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The last part of the 1800s built in a logical fashion on the knowledge that had developed previously. Understanding of the general structure (anatomy), basic microscopic structure (histology), derangements caused by disease (pathology), and some relationships to medical illnesses (diagnosis) was well under way, and it continued to advance. Now inquiry began to emphasize how the parts of the body, including the heart, actually worked. A branch of science called physiology was developed, aided by new instruments and techniques. During this time, the areas of electrophysiology and electrocardiography began to reveal the electrical aspects of the heart.

All of these trends continued into the 20th century, right up to the present. The means of investigation have become more refined and new technological advances have allowed more detailed and accurate understanding of the body. X-rays, electrocardiography and electrophysiology, radioactive scanning, chemical analysis of the blood and tissues, ultrasound imaging of the heart, and analysis of blood flow all have been developed in this century. All these will be described as they apply to you.